Theories of Intelligence in Psychology
Apr 23, · This chapter reviews major theories of intelligence. The theories are grouped into four major theory types: (1) psychometric theories; (2) cognitive theories; (3) cognitive-contextual theories; and (4) biological theories. Psychometric theories derive from studying individual differences in test performance on cognitive tests. Questions about the structure of human intelligence Cited by: 5. Cognitive-contextual theories emphasize processes that demonstrate intelligence within a particular context (such as a cultural environment). Major theories include Sternberg’s triarchic theory, Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, and Piaget’s theory of development.
Different psychologists have proposed competing for theories of intelligence over the years. These theories have proven to be useful in our understanding of the brain. There are several unique approaches to the intelligence we will explore in this article. Discovering your individual cognitive strengths will propel you on a path towards better control over your own life.
You can hone your skills, step into your true self, and live your life from a place of greater self-awareness. My work is about transcending.
I want to disrupt and shatter that limiting belief. Intelligence is a complex thing to define. Charles Spearmanan English psychologist, noticed that students who did what are the four theories of intelligence in one subject area tended to do well in corresponding subjects. He concluded that human beings possess a generalized form of intelligence, known as a g-factor, which can lead to other specialized forms of intelligence, measured by s-factor.
Generally excepted s-factors of intelligence include memory, attention, verbal comprehension, spatial skills, and abstract reasoning. IQ tests, which measure general cognitive ability, are derived from his theory of general intelligence. American psychologist, Robert Sternbergmade his name by proposing the triarchic theory of intelligence.
This theory asserts that human intelligence can be divided into three types: analytical, creative, and practical intelligence. Sternberg believed that a balanced measure of all three forms of intelligence would result in the greatest life success. Howard Gardner is an American psychologist who first proposed his theory in the s. He counters the standard psychological view of generalized intelligence by suggesting nine unique forms of intelligence:.
Naturalistic intelligence is the intelligence of the natural world. People who possess naturalistic intelligence to have keen outdoor sensibilities, are born wayfinders, and have a strong connection with Mother Nature.
People who are musically intelligent have a natural draw to all things acoustic and musical. They have a talent for identifying sound, pitch, rhythm, and timbre. Those with this form of intelligence work well with numbers and are skilled problem solvers. Those with existential intelligence have a knack for tackling the big questions of life. What is life? Where does it come from? Who am How to repair dell monitor What should I do with my life?
If you possess existential intelligence, you have a philosophical mind and have no trouble grappling with abstract concept and theory.
If you possess great interpersonal abilities, you possess emotional how to read drum notation pdf. People with this intelligence have a natural ability to understand the thoughts, actions, and motives of others. This type of intelligence is displayed by those with great control over their physical bodies. Many dancers, athletes, and physical therapists possess kinesthetic intelligence.
These people have mastered control over the physical form and are effective physical communicators. People with linguistic intelligence are skilled wordsmiths. They also have a predisposition for visual learning, so they can quickly master new languages. Intrapersonal intelligence is the intelligence of the self. This is the intelligence of introspection and self-knowing. Those with visual-spatial intelligence relate well to the world around them.
They are natural born navigators and possess a keen understanding of the visual world. What power tools are the best, the question is: which theory is best? While IQ tests remain the standardized test what are the four theories of intelligence intelligence, this may not always be the case. Join over 2.
4 Intelligences you must be aware of for Talent Management
MarkTwo is, in many ways, one of the leaders in this area. For example, in his book “A Himalayan Trinity” Mark Oliver (Founder of MarkTwo) identified four fundamental intelligences - IQ, EQ (Emotional Intelligence), PQ (Physical Intelligence) and SQ (Spiritual Intelligence). Jul 16, · The four key components of emotional Intelligence are (i) self-awareness, (ii) self-management, (iii) social awareness, and (iv) relationship management. A way From g: Multiple Intelligence, P ASS Theory and T riarchic Theory Multiple intelligence. Gardner's theory as revised in year has been reviewed by Ea rl Hunt and presented in an.
It might seem useless to define such a simple word. After all, we have all heard this word hundreds of times and probably have a general understanding of its meaning. However, the concept of intelligence has been a widely debated topic among members of the psychology community for decades. Intelligence has been defined in many ways: higher level abilities such as abstract reasoning, mental representation, problem solving, and decision making , the ability to learn, emotional knowledge, creativity, and adaptation to meet the demands of the environment effectively.
Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as "the mental abilities necessary for adaptation to, as well as shaping and selection of, any environmental context , p. Table of contents. The study of human intelligence dates back to the late s when Sir Francis Galton the cousin of Charles Darwin became one of the first people to study intelligence.
Galton was interested in the concept of a gifted individual, so he created a lab to measure reaction times and other physical characteristics to test his hypothesis that intelligence is a general mental ability that is a produce of biological evolution hello, Darwin!
Galton theorized that because quickness and other physical attributes were evolutionarily advantageous, they would also provide a good indication of general mental ability Jensen, Thus, Galton operationalized intelligence as reaction time. Operationalization is an important process in research that involves defining an unmeasurable phenomenon such as intelligence in measurable terms such as reaction time , allowing the concept to be studied empirically Crowthre-Heyck, Some researchers argue that intelligence is a general ability, whereas others make the assertion that intelligence comprises specific skills and talents.
Psychologists contend that intelligence is genetic, or inherited, and others claim that it is largely influenced by the surrounding environment. As a result, psychologists have developed several contrasting theories of intelligence as well as individual tests that attempt to measure this very concept.
General intelligence, also known as g factor, refers to a general mental ability that, according to Spearman, underlies multiple specific skills, including verbal, spatial, numerical and mechanical. Charles Spearman, an English psychologist, established the two-factor theory of intelligence back in Spearman, To arrive at this theory, Spearman used a technique known as factor analysis.
Factor analysis is a procedure through which the correlation of related variables are evaluated to find an underlying factor that explains this correlation. In the case of intelligence, Spearman noticed that those who did well in one area of intelligence tests for example, mathematics , also did well in other areas such as distinguishing pitch; Kalat, In other words, there was a strong correlation between performing well in math and music, and Spearman then attributed this relationship to a central factor, that of general intelligence g.
Thurstone challenged the concept of a g-factor. After analyzing data from 56 different tests of mental abilities, he identified a number of primary mental abilities that comprise intelligence, as opposed to one general factor. The seven primary mental abilities in Thurstone's model are verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, number facility, spatial visualization, perceptual speed, memory, and inductive reasoning Thurstone, as cited in Sternberg, Following the work of Thurstone, American psychologist Howard Gardner built off the idea that there are multiple forms of intelligence.
He proposed that there is no single intelligence, but rather distinct, independent multiple intelligences exist, each representing unique skills and talents relevant to a certain category. Gardner , initially proposed seven multiple intelligences : linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal, and he has since added naturalist intelligence.
Gardner holds that most activities such as dancing will involve a combination of these multiple intelligences such as spatial and bodily-kinesthetic intelligences. He also suggests that these multiple intelligences can help us understand concepts beyond intelligence, such as creativity and leadership. And although this theory has widely captured the attention of the psychology community and greater public, it does have its faults. There have been few empirical studies that actually test this theory, and this theory does not account for other types of intelligence beyond the ones Gardner lists Sternberg, This theory is based on the definition of intelligence as the ability to achieve success based on your personal standards and your sociocultural context.
According to the triarchic theory, intelligence has three aspects: analytical, creative, and practical Sternberg, Analytical intelligence , also referred to as componential intelligence, refers to intelligence that is applied to analyze or evaluate problems and arrive at solutions. This is what a traditional IQ test measure. Creative intelligence is the ability to go beyond what is given to create novel and interesting ideas.
This type of intelligence involves imagination, innovation and problem-solving. Practical intelligence is the ability that individuals use to solve problems faced in daily life, when a person finds the best fit between themselves and the demands of the environment.
Adapting to the demands environment involves either utilizing knowledge gained from experience to purposefully change oneself to suit the environment adaptation , changing the environment to suit oneself shaping , or finding a new environment in which to work selection.
After examining the popular competing theories of intelligence, it becomes clear that there are many different forms of this seemingly simple concept. On one hand, Spearman claims that intelligence is generalizable across many different areas of life, and on the other hand, psychologists such as Thurstone, Gardener, and Sternberg hold that intelligence is like a tree with many different branches, each representing a specific form of intelligence. Emotional intelligence is important in our everyday lives, seeing as we experience one emotion or another nearly every second of our lives.
You may not associate emotions and intelligence with one another, but in reality, they are very related. The four key components of emotional Intelligence are i self-awareness, ii self-management, iii social awareness, and iv relationship management. In other words, if you are high in emotional intelligence, you can accurately perceive emotions in yourself and others such as reading facial expressions , use emotions to help facilitate thinking, understand the meaning behind your emotions why are you feeling this way?
Raymond Cattell first proposed the concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence and further developed the theory with John Horn. Fluid intelligence is the ability to problem solve in novel situations without referencing prior knowledge, but rather through the use of logic and abstract thinking.
Fluid intelligence can be applied to any novel problem because no specific prior knowledge is required Cattell, As you grow older fluid increases and then starts to decrease in the late 20s. Crystallized intelligence refers to the use of previously-acquired knowledge, such as specific facts learned in school or specific motor skills or muscle memory Cattell, As you grow older and accumulate knowledge, crystallized intelligence increases.
The Cattell-Horn theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence suggests that intelligence is composed of a number of different abilities that interact and work together to produce overall individual intelligence.
For example, if you are taking a hard math test, you rely on your crystallized intelligence to process the numbers and meaning of the questions, but you may use fluid intelligence to work through the novel problem and arrive at the correct solution. It is also possible that fluid intelligence can become crystallized intelligence. The novel solutions you create when relying on fluid intelligence can, over time, develop into crystallized intelligence after they are incorporated into long-term memory.
This illustrates some of the ways in which different forms of intelligence overlap and interact with one another, revealing its dynamic nature. During the early s, the French government enlisted the help of psychologist Alfred Binet to understand which children were going to be slower learners and thus require more assistance in the classroom Binet et al.
As a result, he and his colleague, Theodore Simon, began to develop a specific set of questions that focused on areas such as memory and problem-solving skills.
They tested these questions on groups of students aged three to twelve to help standardize the measure Binet et al. Binet realized that some children were able to answer advanced questions that their older peers were able to answer.
As a result, he created the concept of a mental age, or how well an individual performs intellectually relative to the average performance at that age Cherry, Ultimately, Binet finalized the scale, known as the Binet-Simon scale, that became the basis for the intelligence tests still used today. The Binet-Simon scale of comprised 30 items designed to measure judgment, comprehension, and reasoning which Binet deemed the key characteristics of intelligence. The Stanford-Binet Scale is a contemporary assessment which measures intelligence according to five features of cognitive ability, including fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing and working memory.
Both verbal and nonverbal responses are measured. The average score for the test is , and any score from 90 to is considered to be in the average intelligence range. Score from to are considered to be High Average. Superior scores range from to and anything over is considered Very Superior. If your mental age is equal to your chronological age, you will have an IQ of , or average.
If, however, your mental age is, say, 12, but your chronological age is only 10, you will have an above-average IQ of Just as theories of intelligence build off one another, intelligence tests do too.
After Terman created Stanford-Binet test, American psychologist David Wechsler developed a new tool due to his dissatisfaction with the limitations of the Stanford-Binet test Cherry, Just like Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg, Wechsler believed that intelligence involved many different mental abilities and felt that the Stanford-Binet scale too closely reflected the idea of one general intelligence. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS , is an IQ test designed to measure cognitive ability in adults and older adolescents, including verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed.
The standardization of a test involves giving it to a large number of people at different ages in order to compute the average score on the test at each age level. It is important to regularly standardize an intelligence test because the overall level of intelligence in a population may change over time. This phenomenon is known as the Flynn effect named after its discoverer, New Zealand researcher James Flynn which refers to the observation that scores on intelligence tests worldwide increase from decade to decade Flynn, Other tests, such as aptitude and achievement tests, are designed to measure intellectual capability.
Although this may sound similar to an IQ test, aptitude tests typically measure abilities in very specific areas. Criticisms have ranged from the claim that IQ tests are biased in favor of white, middle-class people.
Although you may be wondering if you take an intelligence test multiple times will you improve your score and whether these tests even measure intelligence in the first place, research provides reassurance that these tests are both very reliable and have high construct validity. Reliability simply means that they are consistent over time.
In other words, if you take a test at two different points in time, there will be very little change in performance or, in the case of intelligence tests, IQ score. Additionally, intelligence tests also reveal strong construct validity , meaning that they are, in fact, measuring intelligence rather than something else. Researchers have spent hours on end developing, standardizing, and adapting these tests to best fit into the current times. But that is also not to say that these tests are completely flawless.
Research documents errors with the specific scoring of tests, interpretation of the multiple scores since typically an individual will receive an overall IQ score accompanied by several category-specific scores , and some studies question the actual validity, reliability, and utility for individual clinical use of these tests Canivez, Additionally, intelligence scores are created to reflect different theories of intelligence, so the interpretations may be heavily based on the theory upon which the test is based Canivez, There are issues with intelligence tests beyond looking at them in a vacuum.
These tests were created by western psychologists who created such tools to measure euro-centric values. Different cultures hold different values and even have different perceptions of intelligence, so is it fair to have one universal marker of this increasingly complex concept?
For example, a study found that Kenyan parents defined intelligence as the ability to do without being told what needed to be done around the homestead Harkness et al. Together, these examples illustrate the flexibility of defining intelligence, making it even more challenging to capture this concept in a single test, let alone a single number.
And even within the U. An example is in San Jose, California, where Latino, Asian, and Anglo parents had varying definitions of intelligence. That is, students whose families had more similar understandings of intelligence were doing better in the classroom. Intelligence takes many forms, ranging from country to country and culture to culture. IQ tests may accurately measure academic intelligence, but more research must be done to discern whether they truly measure practical intelligence, or even just general intelligence in all cultures.
Another important part of the puzzle to consider is the social and environmental context in which an individual lives and the IQ test-related biases that develop as a result. These might help explain why some individuals have lower scores than others.
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