Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Climate
Nov 29, · The Indian Ocean was (and still is) a major route of passage. It stretches between Asia, Africa, and Australia. Depending on how the boundaries of the Southern Ocean are drawn, it even reaches as far south as Antarctica, though most maps recognize the Southern Ocean as extending around the entire circumference of the Antarctic continent. Apr 25, · The ocean is a powerful force that can change the land it touches rapidly and dramatically. Climate change, spurred by human activity, has created disruptions in the otherwise relatively predictable forces of the oceans. This change threatens to swallow the finite land of low lying islands and the limited freshwater reserves.
Bihar : BhagalpurPatnaKatiharMunger. Rajshahi Division : RajshahiPabnaIshwardi. Chittagong Division : ChandpurNoakhali. The 2, km 1, mi river rises in the western Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhandand flows south and dontinents through the Gangetic Plain of North India into Bangladesh, where it empties into the Bay of Bengal.
It is the third largest river on Earth by discharge. The Ganges is the most sacred river to Hindus. The main stem of the Ganges begins at the town of Devprayag at confluence of the Alaknandawhich is the source stream in hydrology because wuat its greater length, and the Bhagirathiwhich is considered the source stream in Hindu mythology.
The Ganges is threatened by severe pollution. This poses a danger not only to humans but also to animals; the Ganges is home to approximately species of fish and 90 species of amphibians. The river also contains reptiles and mammals, including critically endangered species such as the gharial and South Asian river dolphin.
The upper phase of the river Ganges begins at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda rivers in the town how to calculate the dividend growth rate Devprayag in the Garhwal division of the Indian state of Uttarakhand. The Bhagirathi is considered to be the source in Hindu culture and mythology, although the Alaknanda is longer, and therefore, hydrologically the source stream.
The Bhagirathi rises at the foot of Gangotri Glacierat Gomukhat an inxian of 4, m 14, ft and being mythologically referred to as residing in the matted locks of Shiva ; symbolically Tapovan, which is a meadow of ethereal beauty at the feet of Mount Shivling, just 5 km 3.
Although many small streams comprise the headwaters of the Ganges, the six longest and their five confluences are considered sacred. Continebts confluences, known as the Panch Prayagare all along the Alaknanda. They are, in downstream order, Vishnuprayagwhere the Dhauliganga joins the Alaknanda; Nandprayagwhere the Nandakini joins; Karnaprayagwhere the Pindar joins; Rudraprayagwhere the Mandakini joins; and finally, Devprayagwhere the Bhagirathi joins the Alaknanda to form the Ganges.
After flowing for The Ganges river follows a km mi arching course passing through the cities of KannaujFarukhabadand Kanpur. At their confluence the Yamuna is larger than the Ganges contributing about After the Tamsa, the km mi long Gomti River joins, flowing south from the Himalayas. The Kosi is the third largest tributary of the Ganges by discharge, after Ghaghara Karnali and Yamuna. Just before the border with Bangladesh the Farakka Barrage controls the flow of Ganges, diverting some of the water into a feeder canal linked to the Hooghly for the purpose of keeping it relatively silt-free.
The largest is the Damodar Riverwhich is km mi long, with a drainage basin tocuhes 25, km 2 9, sq mi. After entering Bangladeshthe main branch of the Ganges river is known as the Padma.
The Padma is joined by the Jamuna Riverthe largest distributary of the Brahmaputra. Further downstream, the Padma joins the Meghna Riverthe converged flow of Surma-Meghna river system taking on the Meghna's name as it enters the How to complete a johari window Estuary, which empties into the Bay the indian ocean touches what four continents Bengal.
The Ganges Deltaformed mainly by the large, sediment-laden flows of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, is the world's largest delta, at about 64, km 2 25, sq mi.
Only the Amazon and Congo rivers have a greater average discharge than the combined flow of the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, and the Surma-Meghna river system. The Indian subcontinent lies atop the Indian tectonic platea minor plate within the Indo-Australian Plate.
The Indo-Gangetic Plain is geologically known as a foredeep or foreland basin. The hydrology of the Ganges River is very complicated, especially in the Ganges Delta region. One result is different ways to determine the river's length, its dischargeand the size of its drainage basin. The name Ganges is used for the river between the confluence of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda rivers, in the Himalayas, and the first bifurcation of the river, near the Farakka Barrage and the India-Bangladesh Border.
The length of the Ganges is frequently said to be slightly over 2, km 1, mi long, about 2, km how to use my nikon d80, mi california to canada shipping how long, km 1, mi   or 2, km 1, mi.
In some cases, the length of the Ganges is given by what is moo shu gai pan Hooghly River distributary, which is longer than its main outlet via the Meghna River, resulting in a total length of about 2, km 1, miif taken from the source of the Bhagirathi,  or 2, For similar reasons, sources differ over the size of the river's drainage basin.
The Ganges basin ranges from the Himalaya and the Transhimalaya in the north, to the northern slopes of the Vindhya range in the south, from the eastern slopes of the Aravalli in touchfs west to the Chota Nagpur plateau and the Sunderbans delta in the east. A significant portion of the discharge from the Ganges comes from the Himalayan mountain system.
Within the Himalaya, the Ganges basin spreads almost 1, km from the Yamuna-Satluj divide along the Simla ridge forming the boundary with the Indus basin in the west to the Singalila Ridge along the Nepal-Sikkim border forming the boundary with the Brahmaputra basin in the east. This section of the Himalaya contains 9 of the 14 highest peaks in the world over 8,m in height, including Mount Everest which is the high point of the Ganges basin.
The discharge of the Ganges also differs by source. Frequently, discharge is described for the mouth of the Meghna River, thus combining the Ganges with the Brahmaputra and Meghna. The hydrologic cycle in the Fontinents basin is governed by the Southwest Monsoon.
Consequently, streamflow in the Ganges is highly seasonal. The average dry season to monsoon discharge ratio is aboutas measured at Hardinge Bridge. This strong seasonal variation underlies many problems of land and water resource development in the region. Bangladesh, in particular, frequently experiences drought during the dry season and regularly suffers extreme floods during the monsoon. In the Ganges Delta many large rivers come together, both merging and bifurcating in a complicated network of channels.
The two largest rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputraboth split into distributary channels, the largest of which merge with other large rivers before themselves joining the Bay of Bengal. But this current channel pattern was not always the case. Over time the rivers in Ganges Delta have often cntinents coursesometimes altering the network of channels in significant ways. Before the late 12th century the Bhagirathi-Hooghly distributary was the main channel of the Ganges and the Padma was only a minor spill-channel.
The main flow of the river reached the sea not via the modern Hooghly River but rather by the Adi Ganga. Between the 12th and 16th centuries the Bhagirathi-Hooghly and Padma channels were more or less equally significant.
After the 16th century the Padma grew to become the main channel of the Ganges. By the end of the 18th century the Padma had become the main distributary of the Ganges. The present confluence of the Ganges and Meghna was formed very recently, about years ago. Also near the end of the 18th century, the course of the lower Brahmaputra changed dramatically, significantly altering its relationship with the Ganges.
In there was a great flood on the Teesta Riverwhich at the time was a tributary of the Ganges-Padma River. The flood of caused the Teesta to undergo a sudden change course, an avulsionshifting east to vour the Brahmaputra and causing the Brahmaputra to shift its course south, cutting a new channel.
This new main channel of indlan Brahmaputra is called the Jamuna What is bankroll blogging book. It flows south to join the Ganges-Padma. During ancient times, the main flow of the Brahmaputra was more easterly, passing by the city of Mymensingh and joining the Meghna River. Today this channel is a small distributary but retains the name Brahmaputra, sometimes Old Brahmaputra.
Near the confluence is a major early historic site called Wari-Bateshwar. In the rainy season ofrour lower channel of the Bhagirathi, leading to Kolkata, had been entirely shut; but in the following year it opened again and tokches nearly of the same size with the upper channel but both however suffered a considerable diminution, owing probably to the new communication opened below the Jalanggi on the upper channel.
The first European traveller to mention the Ganges was the Greek envoy Megasthenes ca. He did so several times in his work Indica : "India, again, possesses many rivers both large and navigable, which, having conrinents sources in the mountains which stretch along the northern frontier, traverse the level country, and not a few of these, after uniting with each other, fall into the river called the Ganges.
Now this river, which at its source is 30 stadia broad, flows from north to south, and empties its waters into the ocean forming the eastern boundary of the Gangaridaia nation which possesses a vast force of the largest-sized elephants. In a water sharing dispute arose between India and East Pakistan now Bangladeshafter India declared its intention to build the Farakka Barrage.
In a year treaty was signed with Bangladesh. However, within a year the flow at Farakka fell to levels far below the historic average, making it impossible to implement the ocexn sharing of water. Dry season flows returned to normal levels in the years following, the indian ocean touches what four continents efforts were made to address the problem.
One plan is for another barrage to be continent in Bangladesh at Pangshawest of Dhaka. This barrage would help Bangladesh better utilise its share of the waters of the Ganges. The Ganges is a sacred river to Hindus along every fragment of its length. All along its course, Hindus bathe in its waters,  paying homage to how much house can you afford calculator ancestors and to their gods by cupping the water in their hands, lifting it and letting it fall back into the river; they offer flowers and rose petals and float shallow clay dishes filled with oil and lit with wicks diyas.
The Ganges is the embodiment of all how to make a real iron man arc reactor waters in Hindu mythology. She has been a symbol of India's age-long culture and civilization, ever-changing, ever-flowing, and yet ever the same Ganga. In late May or early June every year, Hindus celebrate the karunasiri and rise of the Ganges from earth to heaven. The karunasiri is an old theme in Hinduism with a number of different versions of the story.
In the Vaishnava version of the myth, the indian ocean touches what four continents heavenly waters were then a river called Vishnupadi Sanskrit : "from the foot of Vishnu". It is Shivahowever, among the major deities of the Hindu pantheon, who appears in the most widely known version contiennts the avatarana story.
Livid at being disturbed, Kapila sears how to stretch a shirt longer with his angry indiian, reduces them to ashes, and dispatches them to the netherworld. Only the waters of foue Ganges, then in heaven, can bring the dead sons their salvation. A descendant of these sons, King Bhagirathaanxious to restore his ancestors, undertakes rigorous penance and is eventually granted the prize of Ganges's descent from heaven.
However, since her turbulent force would also shatter the earth, Bhagiratha persuades Shiva in his abode on Mount Kailash to receive Ganges in the coils of his tangled hair and toucyes her fall.
Ganges descends, is tamed in Shiva's locks, and arrives in the Himalayas. Toucnes is then led by the waiting Bhagiratha hwat into the plains at Haridwar, across the plains first to the confluence with the Yamuna at Prayag and then to Varanasi, and eventually to Ganges Sagarwhere she meets the ocean, sinks to the netherworld, and saves the sons of Sagara. What is widest river in the world the Ganges had descended from heaven to earth, she is also considered the vehicle of ascentfrom earth to heaven.
O Mother! Necklace adorning the worlds! Banner rising to heaven! I ask that I may leave of this body on your banks, Drinking your water, rolling in your waves, Remembering the indian ocean touches what four continents name, bestowing my gaze upon you.
No place along her banks is more longed for at the moment of death by Hindus than Varanasi, the Great How to use photoshop tutorial Ground, or Mahashmshana.
Hindus also perform pinda pradana kcean, a rite for the dead, in which balls of rice and sesame seed are offered to the Ganges while the names of the deceased relatives are recited. His soul arrives before Yamathe Lord of Death, to be judged for the afterworld.
Having no compensating virtue, Vahika's soul is at once dispatched to hell. While this is happening, his body on earth, however, is being picked at by vultures, one of whom flies away what is alcohol content of beer a foot bone.
In Rome's Piazza Navona, Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (fountain of the four rivers) was designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini and built in The art-work symbolizes four of the world's great rivers (the Ganges, the Nile, the Danube, and the Río de la Plata), which is to represent the four continents (Australia and Antarctica were unknown then). The Suez Canal is one of the great international waterways of the world — cuts across the Isthmus of Suez and provides navigational facilities between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. The history of a canal connecting the Mediterranean with the Red Sea dates back to 13th century B.C. when Nile-Red Sea canal is known to have been in. Azamara® is an upmarket cruise line and the leader in Destination Immersion®, with three mid-sized ships sailing to all seven continents of the world. The boutique-style ships allow them to reach marquee ports around the world and dock in smaller les.
Intext Questions. Page Question 1. Why the houses in Rajasthan have thick walls and flat roofs? Answer In Rajasthan, the weather is very hot and there is less rainfall.
Some part of the state is covered with desert. The thick walls of the houses insulate the people against the heat in summer and extreme cold in winter due to the desert. Flat roofs are easier to construct and as there is not much rainfall, water will not collect on the rooftops. Questions 2. Why is it that the houses in the Tarai region and in Goa and Mangalore have sloping roofs?
Answer The houses in the Tarai region and in Goa and Mangalore have sloping roofs because they get heavy rain during the monsoon season. When there are sloping roofs, the rain water can easily flow off towards the ground or to a receptive unit where water is collected instead of collecting on the rooftop. Question 3. Why houses in Assam are built on stilts? Answer Houses in Assam are built on stilts because the state receives abundant rainfall due to which there are chances of floods, In case of flood the water might get inside the houses, if the houses are built on ground level, so in order to avoid flooding of houses, houses are built on stilts and above the ground level.
Question 4. Answer Most of the worlds deserts are located in the western margins of continents in the subtropics because the prevailing winds in the tropics are tropical easterly winds. The tropical easterly winds become dry by the time they reach the western margins of the continents and so they bring no rainfall.
Thus, the region becomes devoid of moisture which causes dry conditions leading to formation of deserts. Choose the correct answer from the four alternatives given below. Answer b. Answer a. Answer c. Question 2. Answer the following questions briefly.
Answer There are six major controls of the climate of any place. They are latitude, altitude, pressure and wind system, distance from the sea continentality , ocean currents and relief features. Answer The monsoon winds play an important role in the climate of India. Therefore, it is called the monsoon type of climate. Answer The north-western part of India experiences the highest diurnal range of temperature. On the other hand, there is hardly any difference in day and night temperatures in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands or in Kerala.
Answer The south west monsoon winds are responsible for the rainfall along the Malabar coast. Answer Jet streams are a narrow belt of high altitude above m westerly winds in the troposphere. It affects the coastal regions of the country and is responsible for tropical cyclones during the monsoon as well as during the October to November period. What do you understand by break in monsoon? Answer The monsoons are moisture laden winds from the southwest which bring heavy rainfall to southern Asia, in summer.
This means that the monsoon rains take place for a few days at a time. These wet spells are interspersed with dry spells related to the movement of the monsoon trough. Answer The seasonal alteration of the wind systems and the associated weather conditions provide a rhythmic cycle of seasons.
Monsoon rains are unevenly distributed and typically uncertain. The Indian landscape, plant and animal life, agriculture, the people and their festivities, all revolve around the monsoon. All the Indian people eagerly await the arrival of the monsoon. It binds the whole country by providing water which sets all agricultural activities in motion.
That is why the monsoon is considered a unifying bond. Why does rainfall decrease from the east to the west in northern India? Answer Rainfall decreases from the east to the west in Northern India because there is a decrease in the moisture of the winds. As the moisture bearing winds of the Bay of Bengal branch of the south west monsoon move further and further inland, the moisture gradually decreases and results in low rainfall when moving westwards.
Consequently, states like Gujarat and Rajasthan in western India get very little rainfall. Give reasons as to why.
Cold winds blow from this region to the low pressure areas over the oceans to the south. Air moves from the high pressure area over the southern Indian ocean, crosses the equator and turns right towards the low pressure areas over the Indian subcontinent.
Thus, we can say that rainfall in India is concentrated over a few months. They blow from land to sea and hence for most part of the country it is a dry season. Some amount of rainfall occurs on the Tamil Nadu coast from these winds as here they blow from sea to land.
The thickly populated deltas of the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri are frequently struck by cyclones which cause great damage to life and property. Even during the monsoon months the monsoon winds when rising over the Western Ghats give rain to that area.
By the time they reach Rajasthan and Gujarat there is very less moisture left in these winds and so these areas are drought prone. Question 5. Describe the regional variations in the climatic conditions of India with the help of suitable examples. Answer There are regional variations in the climatic conditions of India which can be understood with the help of the following examples. In the Himalayas precipitation is in the form of snowfall. Question 6. Discuss the mechanism of monsoon. Answer The climate of India is described as the monsoon type.
These winds originate from the subtropical high pressure belt in the northern hemisphere, get deflected to the right due to the coriolis force and move on towards the equatorial low pressure area.
This causes complete reversal of the direction of the winds during summer. Air moves from the high pressure area over the southern Indian Ocean, crosses the equator and turns right towards the low pressure areas over the Indian subcontinent. These are known as the south-west monsoon winds. These winds blow over the warm oceans, gather moisture and bring widespread rainfall over the mainland of India. Withdrawal or Retreat of Monsoon The withdrawal or retreat of the monsoon begins in the states of India by early September.
By mid October, it withdraws completely from the northern half of peninsula. By December, the monsoon has withdrawn from the rest of the country. Question 7. Give an account of weather conditions and characteristics of the cold season. Answer The cold weather season begins from the November in northern India and stays till February. December and January are the coldest months in the northern part of India.
Frost is common in the north and higher slopes of the Himalayas experience snowfall. Some amount of rainfall occurs on the Tamil Nadu coast from these winds as they blow there from sea to land. The low pressure systems originate over the Mediterranean Sea and Western Asia and move into India along with the westerly flow.
They cause the much needed winter rains over the plains and snowfall in the mountains. There is hardly any noticeable change in temperature pattern during winter due to the moderating influence of the sea. Question 8. Give the characteristics and effects of the monsoon rainfall in India.
Answer Characteristics. Around the time of its arrival, the normal rainfall increases suddenly and continues constantly for several days. In other words, monsoon rains take place only for a few days at a time. Kashmir also receives low rainfall. The withdrawal of the monsoon begins when the south-west monsoon winds weaken and start withdrawing gradually.
By the beginning of October, the monsoon withdrawal from the northern plains. By mid October, it withdraws completely from the northern half of the peninsula.
By early December, the monsoon has withdrawn from the rest of India. Effects of the Monsoon. It is often irregular in its arrival and its retreat sometimes disturbs the farming schedule of millions of farmers all over the country. For Doing it Yourself. Re-arrange the ten stations in two different sequences. Answer Shillong and Mumbai. Answer Leh and Jodhpur. Answer Mumbai and Thiruvanantapuram.
Answer Shillong and Kolkata.
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